Reasoning the Reason


Legal Reasoning

1. PRINCIPLE  1: An agreement is unenforceable if its consideration or object is forbidden by law.

PRINCIPLE 2: Wagering is forbidden by law.

FACTS: Number Game is a daily competition held by a newspaper. One has to complete the cryptic sudoku, enclose the same along with `1000 in an envelope and send it to the office. After this, a lucky draw would be held and a winner would be accordingly chosen from among the entire week’s entries who would receive `1,00,000 as prize money. Mr. Knowledge was adjudged the winner one week but was given only `70,000. He files a suit for the remainder of the amount.

(a) Mr. Knowledge will succeed; by winning the lucky draw he has provided the consideration which can bind the newspaper to its promise of the payment of `1,00,000

(b) Mr. Knowledge will not succeed as the component of a lucky draw converts the character of this contract to a wagering agreement which is unenforceable

(c) Mr. Knowledge will succeed as the contract was not a wagering agreement but was in fact based on skill, and is hence enforceable

(d) Mr. Knowledge will not succeed as the contract is void on account of its object being forbidden by law.

2. PRINCIPLE: The Constitution of India on the matter of equality of opportunity in matters of public employment says: There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to appointment or employment to any office under the State. No citizen shall, on the grounds of caste (among others) be ineligible for any office under the State.

FACTS: Anuradha Srivastava, a devout Brahmin, was employed by the government. Once, during a cabinet reshuffle, she filed her nomination papers for the post of Head of Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe National Commission. She did not get the post, and was told that it was because she belonged to the Brahmin caste and, therefore, was not fit to head the SC/ST National Commission. She was enraged, as this was a violation of the fundamental rights, which guaranteed that no citizen would be discriminated upon on grounds of caste and went to the court to take up this matter.

(a) The Court will find her right as she is a woman, and the State allows special provisions for women and children.

(b) The Court will find her in the wrong as even fundamental rights are subject to reasonable restrictions of public convenience and safety.

(c) The Court will find her in the right as she is an honest employee exercising her right to equality of opportunity in the workplace.

(d) The Court will find her in the wrong as she is only trying to rake up publicity for her issue by bringing it to the Court.

The answers are: 1. (c), 2. (c)

Analytical Reasoning

Directions (Qs. 1 and 2): Each question has a set of four sequentially ordered statements. Each statement is classified as one of the following:

Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).

Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’)

Judgments, which are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’)

Select the answer option that best describes the set of four statements.

1. (1) So much of our day-to-day focus seems to be on getting things done, trudging our way through the tasks of living—it can feel like a treadmill that gets you nowhere; where is the childlike joy?

(2) We are not doing the things that make us happy, that which brings us joy, the things that we cannot wait to do because we enjoy them so much.

(3) This is the stuff that joyful living is made of—identifying your calling and committing yourself wholeheartedly to it.

(4) When this happens, each moment becomes a celebration of you; there is a rush of energy that comes with feeling completely immersed in doing what you love most.
(a) IIIJ
(b) IFIJ
(c) JFJJ
(d) JJJJ.

2. (1) According to all statistical indications, the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has managed to keep pace with its ambitious goals.

(2) The Mid-Day Meal scheme has been a significant incentive for the poor to send their little ones to school, thus establishing the vital link between healthy bodies and healthy minds.

(3) Only about 13 million children in the age group of 6 to 14 years are out of school.

(4) The goal of universalisation of elementary education has to be a pre-requisite for the evolution and development of our country.
(a) IIFJ
(b) JIIJ
(c) IJFJ
(d) IJFI.

The answers are: 1. (d), 2. (a),

Logical Reasoning

1. Pointing to a man in a photograph, Asha said, “His mother’s only daughter is my mother.” How is Asha related to that man?
(a) Nephew
(b) Sister
(c) Wife
(d) Niece.

Directions (Qs. 2-4); Answer the following questions based on the passage below.
A group of three or four has to be selected from seven persons. Among the seven are two women: Fiza and Kavita, and five men: Ram, Shyam, David, Peter and Rahim. Ram would not like to be in the group if Shyam is also selected. Shyam and Rahim want to be selected together in the group. Kavita would like to be in the group only if David is also there. David, if selected, would not like Peter in the group. Ram would like to be in the group only if Peter is also there. David insists that Fiza be selected in case he is there in the group.

2. Which of the following is a feasible group of three?
(a) David, Ram, Rahim
(b) Peter, Shyam, Rahim
(c) Kavita, David, Shyam
(d) Fiza, David, Ram.

3. Which of the following is a feasible group of four?
(a) Ram, Peter, Fiza, Rahim
(b) Shyam, Rahim, Kavita, David
(c) Shyam, Rahim, Fiza, David
(d) Fiza, David, Ram, Peter.

4. Which of the following statements is true?
(a) Kavita and Ram can be part of a group of four
(b) A group of four can have two women
(c) A group of four can have all four men
(d) None of these.

Directions (Qs. 5-6): In each of the following questions, a pair of capitalised words is followed by four pairs of words. You are required to mark as the answer the pair of words which have a relationship between them most similar to the relationship between the capitalised pair.

5. Fission: Fusion,
(a) Implosion : Explosion
(b) Separation : Combination
(c) Intrusion : Extrusion
(d) Enemy : Friend

6. Action : Reaction
(a) Introvert : Extrovert
(b) Assail : Defend
(c) Diseased: Treatment
(d) Death : Rebirth.

Directions (Qs. 7-8): In the following questions, a set of four words has been given. Three of the words are related in some way. You have to select the word that does not fit in the relation.

7. (a) Ring
(b) Round
(c) Bell
(d) Circle.

8. (a) Computer
(b) Internet
(c) Grid
(d) Network.

The answers are: 1. (d), 2. (b), 3. (c), 4. (d), 5. (b), 6. (b), 7. (c), 8.(c)

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