1. PRINCIPLE: Generally an agreement without consideration is not valid. Therefore, in order to make a valid agreement, some consideration which may have some value in the eyes of law, is essentially required.
FACTS: Sameer has an old car of which he makes seldom use. He voluntarily enters into an agreement with Mandeep to sell this car for rupees ten thousand. Thereafter one Kunal approaches Sameer and offers to buy that car for rupees one lakh as the car was one which Kunal has been searching for long. Now Sameer wants to cancel his agreement with Mandeep and refuses to deliver the car to him saying that consideration (price) for the car promised by Mandeep is negligible and, therefore, agreement with him cannot be said to be a valid one.
(a) Sameer can cancel his agreement with Mandeep as the consideration involved in that is really inadequate
(b) Sameer cannot cancel his agreement with Mandeep as the sale of car for rupees ten thousand was voluntary and this price has some value in the eyes of law.
(c) Sameer can cancel his agreement with Mandeep as he was ignorant about the value/price of the car for which it could be sold.
(d) Sameer can cancel his agreement with Mandeep as he is entitled to get full market value/price of his car.
2. PRINCIPLE: Every partner is liable, jointly with all the other partners and also severally, for all acts of the firm done while he is a partner.
FACTS: A and B started a partnership firm for providing truck repairing services. C approached the firm for getting his truck repaired and noticed that only B was present in the office. C informed the problem, and B started repairing the truck. While B was repairing, he filled diesel instead of oil in the engine. As a consequence, a small blast occurred and damaged the truck. Now, C sued both A and B for the damage so caused.
(a) Both are liable since B was authorized to carry out the work of the firm.
(b) A is not liable since A has not authorized B to do something which was not for the benefit of the firm.
(c) A is not liable since it was B’s fault and for that only B can be held liable.
(d) A is liable since it was negligence on his part that he was not present in the office when C came.
The answers are: 1. (b); 2. (a).
Directions (Qs. 1-5): Read the following information carefully to answer the questions that follow.
Seven different coaches P, Q, R, S, T, U and V visit the Dehradun world school on four days – Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday in a week. On each day, at least one coach but not more than two coaches visit the school. The coaches provide training for Cricket, Football,
Basketball, Volleyball, Kabaddi, Shooting and Badminton, not necessarily in the same order.
1. S visits on Friday with the shooting coach.
2. The basketball coach neither visits on Saturday nor with T and V.
3. The badminton coach U visits alone on Tuesday.
4. Q visits on Wednesday and he is not the basketball coach.
5. R visits on Wednesday.
6. V is not a shooting coach.
7. The cricket and the basketball coach visit together.
8. The volleyball coach visits on Friday.
9. P is neither the football coach nor the shooting coach.
1. Taking into consideration their name and the sport with which they are associated, how many solutions are possible?
2. With which sport is P associated?
(d) Cannot be determined.
3. Who is the basketball coach?
4. On which day does T visit the school?
(d) Cannot be determined.
The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (c); 3. (d); 4. (c).
Directions (Qs. 1-5): Each of these questions has a statement followed by two conclusions numbered as I and II. Decide which of the conclusions follows from the statement. Mark answer as
(a) if neither conclusion I nor II follows
(b) if conclusion II follows
(c) if conclusion I follows
(d) if both conclusions follow.
1. Statement: There is mounting concern that water will be a flash point for political, social and economic turmoil.
I. Water faces an endemic global shortage.
II. The scarcity of water will have serious repercussions on our lives.
2. Statement: Cardiac myopathy is marked by an increase in the size of heart and decrease in the efficiency of pumping.
I. The bigger the size of heart the better it works.
II. The efficiency of the heart is inversely proportional to the size of the heart.
3. Statement: Some religious gurus preach austerity to poor while living in luxury and driving Mercedes.
I. Some of the frauds have done the garb of religious god men.
II. There is a world of difference between preaching and practising.
4. Statement: Every natural remedy is not necessarily harmless and should be used with caution.
I. The natural remedies are not scientifically proven.
II. Everything natural has no side effect.
5. Statement: Summer heralds the arrival of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and chickunguniya.
I. Mosquito bites are harmless during winter, autumn and spring season.
II. Mosquitoes breed rapidly during summers.
The answers are: 1. (c); 2. (b); 3. (a); 4. (a); 5. (b).