Reasoning the Reason



1. PRINCIPLE 1: Injuria sine damnum means violation of a legal right without causing any harm, loss or damage to the plaintiff.

PRINCIPLE 2: Damnum sine injuria means when there is no violation of a legal right, no action can lie in a court of law even though the defendant’s act has caused some loss or harm or damage to the plaintiff.

FACTS: The petitioner, a registrar of the court, was stopped from attending the court proceedings; though later the day was declared to be a holiday. Can he claim damages?

(a) Yes, because his legal right has been infringed following the principle injuria sine damnum.

(b) Yes, because he was wrongfully restrained.

(c) No, because no injury or damage has been caused to him since it was a court holiday.

(d) No, but the police can arrest such people.

2. PRINCIPLE: For a valid contract, there has to be an offer made by one party and acceptance of the offer by the other. The offer and acceptance can be express or implied.

FACTS: A contract is signed between an Indian and a Singaporean party. There is an arbitration clause in the agreement. Immediately after signing the contract the Indian party objects to the arbitration clause and writes a letter to the Singaporean party. The Singaporean party does not reply to it but permits the work to go on. What is the status of the arbitration clause now?

(a) The arbitration clause stands deleted now because the Singaporean party impliedly accepted the Indian party’s objection.

(b) The entire contract stands deleted now.

(c) The offer and acceptance apply to contract only, not to alteration of contract.

(d) The Singaporean party’s silence on the matter doesn’t convey an agreement and hence, the agreement clause stands.

The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (a)


1. Arrange the following words according to the dictionary?

  1. Inventory
  2. Involuntary
  3. Invisible
  4. Invariable
  5. Investigate

(a)  4, 2, 5, 3, 1

(b)  4, 5, 1, 3, 2

(c)  2, 5, 4, 1, 3

(d) 4, 1, 5, 3, 2

2. Pointing to the photograph, Vipul said, “She is the daughter of my grandfather’s only son.” How is Vipul related to the girl in the photograph?

(a)  Mother

(b)  Sister

(c)  Cousin

(d) Grandmother

3. If 228 = 12 and 337 = 16, then 569 = ?

(a)  42

(b)  39

(c)  36

(d) 26

4. Select the one which is different from the other three responses.

(a)  14, 9

(b)  17, 8

(c)  21, 6

(d) 42, 3

The answers are: 1. (d); 2. (b); 3. (b); 4. (b)


1.Statement: “Make earnest efforts to raise fund for helping the victims of the earthquake in Chamoli district.” An appeal.


  1. There was an earthquake in Chamoli district.
  2. It is not proper to raise funds for such works.

(a) Only assumption I is implicit.

(b) Only assumption II is implicit.

(c) Neither I nor II is implicit.

(d) Both I and II are implicit.

2. Statement : Until our country achieves economic equality, political freedom and democracy would be meaningless.

Conclusions :

  1. Political freedom and democracy go hand in hand.
  2. Economic equality leads to real political freedom and democracy.

(a)  Only conclusion I follows

(b)  Only conclusion II follows

(c)  Either I or II follows

(d) Neither I nor II follows

3. Statement : Should the government restrict all political and religious processions without prior permission of the government ?

Arguments :

  1. Yes, such processions lead to riots many times.
  2. No, this is against the human rights in a democratic country.

(a)  Only argument I is strong

(b)  Only argument II is strong

(c)  Either I or II is strong

(d) Neither I nor II is strong

The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (b); 3. (c)

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