1. PRINCIPLE: When a criminal act is done by several persons in furtherance of the common intention of all, each of such persons is liable for that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone.
FACTS: Four men agree to rob a bank. Two of them are carrying large knives and one has a shotgun. The last one is carrying a bag for the money. They agree that they will try not to hurt anyone. They enter the bank wearing masks, threaten the staff, and demand cash. One of the bank employees tries to grab the shotgun, and the man holding it discharges the shotgun, causing the death of the employee. The men get the cash and leave the bank.
Can any or all of the robbers be charged in relation to the murder of the employee?
(a) Yes, all of the robbers can be charged because the act of one man in discharging the gun was in pursuit of the common intention to hurt anyone if necessary while robbing the bank.
(b) No, the robbers were of the common intention that they would try not to hurt anyone, and this was obviously an accident.
(c) Yes, all of the robbers can be charged because the act of one man in discharging the gun was in pursuit of the common intention of all of them to rob the bank.
(d) Yes, but only the man who discharged the shotgun can be charged, as it is his fault alone, and the others were of the common intention that they would try not to hurt anyone.
2. PRINCIPLE: Article 129 of the Constitution provides that the Supreme Court is a court of record. This means that its acts and judicial proceedings are recorded for perpetual memory and testimony, and that it has the authority to fine and imprison for contempt of itself.
FACTS: Prabhat, an advocate, is found to have committed contempt of the Supreme
Court by trying to influence a judge of the Court. As punishment for contempt, the Supreme Court directs that Prabhat’s licence to practice as an advocate be cancelled.
Can the Supreme Court do this?
(a) Yes, the Supreme Court can cancel Prabhat’s licence to practice as an advocate, since it is a court of record and has the power to punish for contempt of itself.
(b) Yes, the Supreme Court can cancel Prabhat’s licence to practice as an advocate, since it is the highest court in the land, and an advocate who is in contempt of the Supreme Court should not have a right to practice.
(c) No, the Supreme Court cannot cancel Prabhat’s licence to practice, since an advocate’s licence to practice, once granted, is irrevocable on any ground whatsoever.
(d) No, the Supreme Court cannot do this, since its powers of punishment for contempt may extend to fine or imprisonment, but not to cancelling an advocate’s licence to practice.
The answers are 1. (c); 2. (d)
1. If TEA is coded as 100, then how will you code FAT?
2. If A represents ‘x’, B represents ‘÷’, C represents ‘+’ and D represents ‘–’, then find the value of ‘2 A 8 D 5 C 9 B 3?
3. In a class of 60 students, the number of boys is double the number of girls. In a class test, Kapil’s rank is 10th from the top and there are 3 girls ahead of him in rank. How many boys are below him in rank?
The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (d); 3. (c)
1. Dr. Miller has a busy pediatric dentistry practice and she needs a skilled, reliable hygienist to keep things running smoothly. The last two people she hired were recommended by top dentists in the area, but they each lasted less than one month. She is now in desperate need of a hygienist who can competently handle the specific challenges of her practice. Which one of the following candidates should Dr. Miller consider most seriously?
(a) Marilyn has been a hygienist for fifteen years, and her current employer, who is about to retire, says she is the best in the business. The clientele she has worked with consists of some of the wealthiest and most powerful citizens in the county.
(b) Lindy recently graduated at the top of her class from one of the best dental hygiene programs in the state. Prior to becoming a dental hygienist, Lindy spent two years working in a day care centre.
(c) James has worked as a dental hygienist for three years in a public health clinic.
He is very interested in securing a position in a private dental office.
(d) Kathy is an experienced and highly recommended dental hygienist who is also finishing up a degree in early childhood education, which she hopes will get her a job as a pre-school teacher. She is eager to find a job in a pediatric practice, since she has always wanted to work with children.
2. Mrs. Jansen recently moved to Arizona. She wants to fill her new backyard with flowering plants. Although she is an experienced gardener, she isn’t very well versed in what plants will do well in the Arizona climate. Also, there is a big tree in her backyard making for shady conditions and she isn’t sure what plants will thrive without much direct sunlight. Her favourite gardening catalogue offers several backyard seed packages. Which one should Mrs. Jansen choose?
(a) The Rainbow Collection is ideal for North-east gardens. It includes a variety of colourful perennials that thrive in cool, moist conditions.
(b) The Greenhouse Collection will blossom year after year if planted in brightly lit locations and watered regularly.
(c) The Tree house Collection will provide lush green plants with delicate colourful flowers that thrive in shady and partially shady locations.
(d) The Oasis Collection includes a variety of perennials that thrive in dry climates and bright sunlight.
The answers are 1. (b); 2. (c)