Principles for Qs. 1 and 2:
PRINCIPLE 1: Where one person authorises another to commit a tort, the liability for that will not only be on the person who has committed it but also on that who authorises it. It is based on the general principle “Qui facit per alium facit per se” which means that the act of an agent is the act of the principal. This is known as vicarious liability.
PRINCIPLE 2: For any act authorised by the principal and done by an agent, both of them are liable. Their liability is joint and several.
PRINCIPLE 3: The authority to do an act may be express or implied. The principal generally does not ask his agent to do a wrongful act, but when the agent acts in the ordinary course of the performance of his duties as an agent, the principal becomes liable for the same.
1. FACTS: A engaged a firm to repair the lift in his building. While the repair work was going on, there was an accident in which a worker was injured. Can A be sued for the injury?
(a) Yes, because the workers are directly employed under A.
(b) No, because A has only engaged the firm and he has no control over the workers.
(c) Yes, because injury has been caused during the course of employment.
(d) No, because it was not A’s fault.
2. FACTS: A’s secretary persuaded his friend to deposit some money for investment in A’s firm, without A’s knowledge and consent but later confiscated the money. Can A be sued for the acts of his secretary?
(a) Yes, the act has been done in a wrongful way in the course of employment.
(b) No, because A did not authorise such an act.
(c) No, because it was not done during the course of employment.
(d) Both (b) and (c).
The answers are: 1. (b); 2. (d).
Directions (Qs. 1 to 4): Read the following information carefully and answer the questions that follow. Among, A, B, C, D and E, E is taller than D but not as fat as D. C is taller than A but shorter than B. A is fatter than D but not as fat as B. E is thinner than C who is thinner than D. E is shorter than A.
1. Who is the thinnest person in the group?
(a) B (b) C (c) D (d) E.
2. Who is the tallest as well as having the highest weight in the group?
(a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D.
3. If all the persons stood in a line according to their height, who would be in the middle?
(a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D.
4.Which person is taller than two but thinner than the remaining two?
(a) A (b) B (c) C (d) E.
5. Food : Stomach : : Fuel : ?
(a) Engine (b) Automobile (c) Rail (d) Aeroplane.
6. If the second half of the following alphabets is written in the reverse order, which will be the 10th letter to the left of 9th letter counting from the right end?
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
(a) I (b) C (c) J (d) H.
The answers are: 1.(d); 2.(b); 3.(a); 4.(c); 5.(a); 6. (b).
1. Statements: 1. All fans are cups.
2. All cups are pillows.
Conclusions: I. All fans are pillows.
II. All pillows are fans.
(a) Only conclusion I follows
(b) Only conclusion II follows
(c) Neither I nor II follows
(d) Both I and II follow.
2. Statement: Should there be a ban on product advertisements?
Arguments: I. No, it is an age of advertising. Unless your advertisement is better than that of your other competitors, the products will not be sold.
II. Yes, the money spent on advertising is very huge and it inflates the cost of the product.
(a) Only argument I is strong
(b) Only argument II is strong
(c) Neither I nor II is strong
(d) Both I and II are strong.
The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (d).