Reasoning the Reason



1. PRINCIPLE: Contract is a written or spoken agreement, with specific terms between two or more persons or entities in which there is a promise to do something in return for a valuable benefit known as consideration. Such an agreement is intended to be enforceable by law. A unilateral contract is one in which there is a promise to pay or give other consideration in return for actual performance.

FACTS: A Toilet Soap Manufacturing Company in India in order to promote the sale of their product, published an advertisement in all the Newspapers on January 1, 2018 that the Company has kept a model ignition key of an Audi A3 Car. The advertisement also stated that whoever gets the said key before December 31, 2018 from a soap bar will be gifted with the Audi A3 Car. Mr. Martin, a foreigner who came to India as a Tourist and was staying in a Hotel found a Key similar to same Car Ignition Key. Mr. Martin brought this matter to the notice of the Hotel Manager. The Manager informed Mr. Martin about the Company’s advertisement on January 1, 2018. Mr. Martin wants to claim the Car. Will he succeed?
(a) No. The Soap Company has not entered into a contract with Mr. Martin as he was not in India on January 1, 2018 when the advertisement was published.
(b) The Hotel Manager could legally claim the Car as he was the one who actually purchased the soap for the use in the Hotel.
(c) No. Actual intention of the Company was to promote the sale of the Soap.
(d) Mr. Martin obtained the Key before the stipulated date from the Soap Bar. So he is covered by the offer of the Soap Company and can claim the car.

2. PRINCIPLE: According to law, a person who find goods belonging to another and takes them into his custody, is subject to the same responsibility as a bailee. Bailee is a person or party to whom goods are delivered for a purpose, such as custody or repair, without transfer of ownership. The finder of the goods legally can sell the goods found by him under certain circumstances including the situation that the owner refuses to pay the lawful charges of the finder.

FACTS: P, a college student, while coming out of a cricket stadium found a necklace, studded with apparently precious diamonds. P kept it for two days thinking that the owner would notify it in a local newspaper. Since he did not notice any such notification, P published a small classified advertisement in a local newspaper. In two days’ time, P was contacted by a film actor claiming that it was her necklace and requested P to return it to her. P told her that she should compensate him for the advertisement charges then only he would return it otherwise he will sell it and make good his expenses. The film star told P that she had advertised in a national newspaper about her lost necklace which was lost somewhere in the cricket stadium. The advertisement was published for three consecutive days incurring a large expenditure for her. Mentioning all this she refuses to pay P and claims the necklace back.
(a) P was requesting the film star for the actual expenditure incurred by him before returning the necklace. This request is legally sustainable
(b) As the film star had notified in the newspaper, P ought to have read it and contacted her instead of publishing another notification. So he cannot claim any compensation
(c) It was wrong on the part of P to bargain over a property belonging to a celebrity; instead he should have accepted some gift which might have been given by the film star and returned the necklace instead of threatening her that he would sell it
(d) The film star was right in refusing P, as she did not offer any reward for anyone who would return the necklace.

The answers are 1. (d); 2. (a).


Directions (Qs. 1-3): Study the information given below and answer the questions based on it.
Six persons M, N, O, P, Q and R have different heights. M is taller than Q but shorter than O. N is shorter than Q but taller than both P and R. The number of persons taller to M is same as those shorter to P. Second highest is 170 cm and second shortest is 152 cm.

1. Who among the following is the shortest?
(a) R
(b) P
(c) O
(d) N.
2. What can be the height of Q?
(a) 172 cm
(b) 158 cm
(c) 150 cm
(d) 171 cm.
3. How many persons are taller than N?
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3.
The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (b); 3. (d).


1. During the past week 120 Genidrug Corporation employees have reported symptoms of a strain of food poisoning known as distacin, but only eight of these employees have tested positive for the strain. A Genidrug spokesperson claims that the apparent outbreak of distacin can be attributed to contaminated food served two weeks ago at the company’s annual employee picnic.
Which of the following, if true, would most support the claim made by the Genidrug spokesperson above?
(a) Distacin symptoms generally last only a few days.
(b) Genidrug’s cafeteria facilities provide lunch to Genidrug employees during every workday.
(c) People with distacin do not generally test positive for distacin until at least one week after distacin symptoms begin to occur.
(d) People with distacin often do not exhibit distacin symptoms until more than a week after contracting istacin.

2. In the sport of soccer, in which the objective is to score more goals than the opposing team, each team member faces off against one member of the other team. The coach for the Redsox predicts victory over the Voughan in an upcoming match between these two soccer teams. The chief reason for the coach’s prediction is that the Voughan’s best defensive player will not be defending against Rinaldo, who is the Redsox’s highest scoring player.
Which of the following, if true, would cast most doubt on the accuracy of the prediction made by the Redsox’s coach above?
(a) The Redsox have defeated fewer opponents than the Voughan this year.
(b) Rinaldo is the Redsox’s best defensive player.
(c) The Redsox’s best defensive player will not be defending against the Voughan’s highest scoring player.
(d) Rinaldo is not the Redsox’s best defensive player.
The answers are: 1. (d); 2. (c).

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