Reasoning the Reason

LEGAL ,LOGICAL , ANALYTICAL REASONING


LEGAL REASONING


1. PRINCIPLE: Whoever intentionally uses force to any person, without that person’s consent, in order to the committing of any offence, or intending by the use of such force to cause, or knowing it to be likely that by the use of such force he will cause injury, fear or annoyance to the person to whom the force is used, is said to use criminal force to that other.
FACTS: ‘Z’ is riding in a palanquin. ‘A’ intending to rob ‘Z’, seizes the pole and stops the palanquin. Here ‘A’ has caused cessation of motion to ‘Z’, and ‘A’ has done this by his own bodily power.
(a) ‘A’ has used criminal force to ‘Z’
(b) ‘A’ has no intention to use criminal force to ‘Z’
(c) ‘A’ has used force with the consent of ’Z’
(d) None of the above.

2. PRINCIPLES:
• An independent contractor is one who is employed to do some work of his employer. He is engaged under a contract for service. He undertakes to produce a given result, and in the actual execution of the work, he is not under the direct control or following directions of his employer. He may use his own discretion in execution of the work assigned.
• In general, an employer is not liable for the torts (wrongful acts) of his independent contractor. But, the employer may be held liable if he directs him to do some careless acts.
FACTS: Anurag hired a taxi-cab to go to Delhi Airport. As he started late from his home, he kept on urging the taxi-driver to drive at a high speed and driver followed the directions; and ultimately due to high speed an accident took place causing injuries to a person.
(a) Anurag would not be held liable for damages because the driver was an independent contractor and not his servant.
(b) Anurag would not be liable as car was not owned by him.
(c) Anurag would be held liable for damages as he exercised the control by giving directions to the driver.
(d) Anurag would not be held liable for damages because Anurag did not know the consequences of such rash driving.
The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (c).


LOGICAL REASONING


1. If 8th December, 2007 was Saturday, which day of the week was 8th December, 2006?
(a) Saturday
(b) Friday
(c) Monday
(d) Tuesday.

2. Kittu is in between Mohan and Sohan, Raju is to the left of Sohan and Shyam is to the right of Mohan. If Sohan is sitting to the left of Mohan and all are sitting facing North, then who is on the extreme right?
(a) Kittu
(b) Mohan
(c) Sohan
(d) Shyam.

3. A man walks 15 m towards South from a fixed point. From there he goes 12 m towards North and then 4 m towards West. How far and in which direction is he from the fixed point?
(a) 3 m South
(b) 7 m South-West
(c) 5 m South-West
(d) 5 m South-East.

4. Free notebooks were distributed equally among children. The number of notebooks each child got was one-eighth of the number of children. Had the number of children been half, each child would have got 16 notebooks each. How many notebooks were distributed, in total?
(a) 32
(b) 128
(c) 512
(d) 256.

5. If the following words are arranged in alphabetical order, which word will come in the middle?
Electric, Elector, Elect, Election, Electrode
(a) Elector
(b) Electric
(c) Election
(d) Electrode.
The answers are: 1. (b); 2. (d); 3. (c); 4. (c); 5. (a).


ANALYTICAL REASONING


Directions (Qs. 1-3): Each question has a set of four sequentially ordered statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following:
• Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
• Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
• Judgments, which are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’)
Select the option that best describes the set of four statements.

1. A. George II disdained the rules of governance established by his forefathers. He wire-tapped citizens without authority, secretly permitted the use of torture and dismissed prosecutors on political grounds.
B. CITI will still receive its share of revenue from the joint venture, which overtakes the troubled Bank of America-Merrill Lynch combination as the world’s largest broker by number of advisers, but there is no question who will be in charge.
C . Initial word of the deal sent CITI’s share price skidding on January 12, as investors reasoned that the bank must be desperate if it was choosing to sell one of its best assets.
D. Without reform of expensive entitlements, the federal government faces bankruptcy.
(a) FIFI
(b) FFFJ
(c) JJFI
(d) FFFF.

2. A. Cutting entitlements at the same time as buying hundreds of billions of dollars-worth of bad loans from Wall Street is difficult politics, to say the least.
B. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same object or not. Thus, we demonstrate how brain activation for audio-visual integration depends on the verbal content of the stimuli, even when stimulus and task processing differences are controlled.
C . This instructor will never pass more than 20 people in an Intermediate Algebra class. The last four semesters the instructor taught Intermediate Algebra, no more than 20 people passed the class.
D . “I don’t believe it has been developing slowly,” Nahamoo says. “We’re trying to develop machines that expose intelligence by transforming sound into text that carries meaning, which is a very complicated problem we’re trying to solve. … We have been solving different aspects of the problem, but it’s not a simple problem.”
(a) JIIF
(b) FFIJ
(c) FFFF
(d) JJII.

3. A. Nahamoo says 1,000 hours of recorded speech is considered the minimum database required for building a respectable system. And mark-off notes that Google, in a technical paper on building large models for machine translation, wrote that the system used 2 trillion “tokens,” or words.
B. While all the other students wrote a ten-page final exam for Dr. Hayakawa,
I brought a typewriter and wrote a fifty-page final exam. It might have been on the basis of this that I received the special scholarship.
C . He knew, as a teacher of public speaking, that he was using humour as a means to the end of education or learning, whereas the comedian could be using the humour as both the means as well as the end.
D . Often, too, men and women come to see that there is a difference between sitting in judgment on another and understanding how and what he sees, assumes, and feels. They begin with what is easier, judging, approving, condemning. It is only as they mature in their study of others and themselves, that the easy praising and blaming give way to asking, searching, listening.
(a) FIFI
(b) FFFJ
(c) JJIF
(d) FIIJ.
The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (a); 3. (d).

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