1. PRINCIPLE: Under the copyright law copyright subsists in original literary works. A literary work need not be of literary quality. Even so prosaic a work as an index of railway stations or a railway guide or a list of stock exchange quotations qualifies as a literary work if sufficient work has been expended in compiling it to give it a new and original character.
FACTS: Michael works hard enough, walking down the streets, taking down the names of people who live at houses and makes a street directory as a result of that labour.
(a) Michael’s exercise in making a street directory is sufficient to justify in making claim to copyright in that work which is ultimately produced
(b) Michael’s exercise in making a street directory is not enough to justify in making claim to copyright in that work
(c) A street directory cannot be enough to be considered as a literary work
(d) None of the above.
2. PRINCIPLE: Every person shall be liable to punishment under the Indian Penal Code and not otherwise for every act or omission contrary to the provisions of the Code of which he shall be guilty within the territory of India. In other words, the exercise of criminal jurisdiction depends upon the locality of the offence committed, and not upon the nationality or locality of the offender.
FACTS: ‘X’, a Pakistani citizen, while staying at Karachi, made false representations to ‘Y’, the complainant, at Mumbai through letters, telephone calls and telegrams and induced the complainant to part with money amounting to over rupees five lakh to the agents of ‘X’ at Mumbai, so that rice could be shipped from Karachi to India as per agreement. But the rice was never supplied to the complainant.
(a) The offence of cheating under section 420 of the Code was committed by
‘X’ within India, even though he was not physically present at the time and place of the crime
(b) The offence of cheating as per section 420 of the Code was not committed by ‘X’ within India, as he was not physically present at the time and place of the crime
(c) Only the agents of ‘X’ had committed the offence of cheating under section 420 of the Code within India, as they were physically present at the time and place of the crime
(d) ‘Y’ was also liable for the offence of cheating under section 420 of the Code within India, as he was physically present at the time and place of the crime.
The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (a).
Directions (Qs. 1 and 2): Read the following information carefully and answer the given questions:
‘A * B’ means ‘A is the brother of B’.
‘A + B’ means ‘A is the sister of B’.
‘A ÷ B’ means ‘A is the father of B’.
‘A – B’ means ‘A is the mother of B’.
1. Which of the following relation/ s is/are true based upon the relations given in the expression:
S – T + V ÷ Y * Z
A. Z is the brother of T.
B. S is the grand-mother of Y.
C. T is the aunt of Z.
D. V is the son of T.
(a) Only B
(b) Only A and C
(c) Only D
(d) Both B and C.
2. In the expression ‘P ÷ Q – R + T’ how is R related to P?
3. In a certain code language, ‘DESTINY’ is written as ‘EFTQHMX’ and ‘PLANETS’ is written as ‘QMBKDSR’. How is ‘ROUTERS’ written in that code?
4. How many such pairs of letters are there in the word STADIUMS, each of which has as many letters between them in the word (in both forward and backward directions) as they have between them in the English alphabetical series?
(d) More than three.
5. The positions of how many digits will remain the same if the digits in the number 49735812 are rearranged in the descending order within the number, from left to right?
(b) More than three
The answers are: 1. (d); 2. (a); 3. (d); 4. (b); 5. (a).
1. Civilisation has taught us to be friendlier towards one another.
Choose the option which most strengthens the argument given above.
(a) Cats are loyal to their children, whereas men are loyal to their communities
(b) Elephants move in a herd, whereas men live in nuclear families
(c) Lions create their own territories, whereas men capture other men’s territories
(d) Nilgai and cheetal stay together, whereas men of one race dominate another.
2. The mushrooming of business schools in the country is a cause for shortage of faculty with Ph.D. qualification. In addition, the higher pay and generous fringe benefits given by industry has encouraged qualified people not to seek academic positions.
Which of the following statements, if true, would tend to strengthen the argument?
(a) The average salary for industry position in Gujarat is more than the average salary for faculty positions in some business schools in Ahmedabad by around 30%
(b) The average salary for industry position in Gujarat is less than the average salary for faculty position in a top business school in Ahmedabad by around 30%
(c) The average salary for recent Ph.D. graduates in the industry is 20% higher than that in academics
(d) The rate of growth of salaries for the industry positions has been higher than the rate of growth of salaries for academic positions for the past three years
The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (d).