Reasoning the Reason

LEGAL ,LOGICAL , ANALYTICAL REASONING


LEGAL REASONING


1.PRINCIPLE: The acceptance of an offer will be valid only if it is made in the way it was expected to be made.

FACTS: There was a telephonic discussion between ‘J’ and ‘K’ for negotiating the sale of the shop of former to the latter. Upon reaching an agreement as to the price of the shop of ‘J’ at Rs. 20 lakh, ‘J’ told ‘K’ to send a letter to him within two weeks confirming that she wishes to buy the shop for the price finalized. Two days thereafter, ‘K’ gave her acceptance to ‘J’ over telephone but sent the letter of confirmation after lapse of one month. Is ‘J’ bound by acceptance of ‘K’?

(a) Yes, because the acceptance was conveyed within two weeks over telephone and it was followed by a letter of acceptance as stipulated.
(b) No, because although the acceptance over telephone was conveyed in time but not in the mode specified and the letter of acceptance was also not sent within two weeks.
(c) No, because sale of immovable property cannot be finalized online; neither any acceptance can be given over phone. Hence, the entire negotiation is invalid.
(d) Yes, because no law can compel the purchaser to give his acceptance through the mode prescribed by the vendor.

2. PRINCIPLE: Clause (1) of Article 15 of the Constitution of India prohibits the State from discriminating between citizens on the ground only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.

FACTS: The admission rules of an Engineering College located in XYZ State of India provided that no capitation fee shall be charged from the residents of the XYZ State but the non-residents shall be required to pay capitation fee. Whether the rules are violative of Article 15(1) of the Constitution?
(a) Yes, because Article 15(1) prohibits discrimination between citizens on the ground only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
(b) Yes, because Article 15(1) prohibits discrimination on the basis of place of birth which impliedly includes place of residence.
(c) Yes, because Article 15(1) prohibits discrimination between citizens on the ground only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth and the provision suffers from causus omissus and “place of residence” is inadvertently omitted.
(d) No, because Article 15(1) does not prohibit discrimination based on the place of residence.

The answers are: 1. (b); 2. (d).


LOGICAL REASONING


Directions (Qs. 1-3): Read the following information to answer these questions.
(i) A x B means A is the brother of B.
(ii) A + B means A is the mother of B.
(iii) A ÷ B means A is the son of B.
(iv) A – B means A is the husband of B.

1. Which of the following would mean M is the father of N?
(a) M ÷ N + O
(b) M x O − N
(c) M + O ÷ N
(d) M − O + N.

2. Which of the following is definitely true, if N is the son of M?
(a) M + N x O
(b) M + N − O
(c) N ÷ M
(d) All the three are true.

3. Which of the following would mean M is the aunt of N?
(a) M x O ÷ N
(b) N + O x M
(c) N ÷ M + O
(d) None of these.

The answers are: 1. (d); 2. (d); 3. (d).


ANALYTICAL REASONING


Directions (Qs. 1-3): In each of the following questions, a statement is given followed by two conclusions. Give answer
(a) If only conclusion I follows.
(b) If only conclusion II follows
(c) If both conclusions I and II follow,
(d) If neither I nor II follows.

1. Statement: Don’t park here. If you violate this no-parking sign, a penalty of Rs. 5000 will be charged.
Conclusions:
I. The same penalty is charged for every wrong parking offence.
II. This warning is written outside all non-parking zones.

2. Statement: Whenever there is a match between India and Pakistan, Mr. Sahai takes leave from his office. Mr. Sahai is in office today.
Conclusions:
I. Today there is no match between India and Pakistan.
II. Mr. Sahai always goes to his office except on India-Pakistan match days.

3. Statement: All the male members of my family are either software engineers or MBAs.
Conclusions:
I. Mrs. Meena is a member of my family. She is either a software engineer or an MBA.
II. Mr. Prakash is a member of my family. He is either a software engineer or an MBA.

The answers are: 1. (d); 2. (a); 3. (b).

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