Reasoning the Reason



PRINCIPLE: All citizens shall have the fundamental right to carry on any occupation, trade or business. But reasonable restrictions on the exercise of such rights can be imposed by law in the interest of the general public.

FACTS: A large number of persons had been carrying on the business of dyeing and printing in Rajkot area for the last 25 years providing employment to about 30,000 families. From these business places untreated dirty water was being discharged on the roads thereby causing damage to the public health. A notice, therefore, was given to close this business till necessary measures to protect public health as provided under the environmental statutes were taken by those businessmen.
(a) Notice cannot be justified as it will cause loss of employment to 30,000 families.
(b) Notice cannot be justified as it amounts to violation of the fundamental right of the persons who have been carrying on the business for the last 25 years.
(c) The notice cannot be justified on the ground of damage to public health as the persons in that area have been voluntarily residing for long and have become used to that environment.
(d) The notice can be justified as the right to business is not absolute and reasonable restriction can be imposed by law in the interest of the public.
The answer is (d).


1. Raveena left house for the bus stop 15 minutes earlier than usual. It takes 10 minutes to reach the stop. She reached the stop at 8:40 a.m. What time does she usually leave home for the bus stop?
(a) 8:55 a.m.
(b) 8:45 a.m.
(c) 8:30 a.m.
(d) 8:05 a.m.

2. If each of the twelve digits on a watch is replaced by English vowels a, e, i, o, u in sequence (1 by a, 2 by e, and so on), the hour hand will be between which pair of vowels at 9:30 a.m.?
(a) ae
(b) ei
(c) io
(d) ou.

3. At dusk, Rohit started walking facing the Sun. After a while, he met his friend and both turned to their left. They halted for a while and started moving by turning again to their right. Finally Rohit waved ‘good bye’ to his friend and took a left turn at a corner; in which direction is Rohit moving now?
(a) South
(b) West
(c) North
(d) East.

4. Daily in the morning the shadow of Gol Gumbaz falls on Bara Kaman and in the evening the shadow of Bara Kaman falls on Gol Gumbaz exactly. So in which direction is Gol Gumbaz to Bara Kaman?
(a) Eastern side
(b) Western side
(c) Northern side
(d) Southern side.

The answers are: 1. (b); 2. (d); 3. (a); 4. (a).


Directions (Qs. 1 to 3): From the alternatives given below, choose the best option that correctly classifies the four sentences as a:

F: Fact: If it relates to a known matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.

J: Judgment: If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.

I: Inference: If it is a logical conclusion or deduction about something based on knowledge of facts.

1. (1) A compelling optical illusion called the illusion of velocity and size makes objects appear to be moving more slow and larger than what the objects are.
(2) Biological functions of many plants and animals vary in cycles that are repeated every 24 hours.
(3) When people move from one time zone to another, their daily biological rhythms adjust in a matter of days to the periods of sunlight and darkness in the new zone.
(4) Although migraine headaches are believed to be caused by food allergies, putting patients on diets that eliminate those foods to which the patients have been demonstrated to have allergic migraine reactions frequently does not stop headaches.
(a) JFJF
(b) JJJJ
(c) FJFJ
(d) FFFF.

2. (1) You don’t have to be a biologist or an anthropologist to see how closely the great apes-gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans – resemble us.
(2) Even children often remark that their bodies are pretty much the same as ours, apart from some exaggerated proportions and extra body hair.
(3) Their faces are quit expressive, showing a range of emotions that are familiar.
(4) That why we delight in seeing chimps wearing tuxedo, playing the drums or riding bicycles.
(a) FIJI
(b) JFIF
(c) IFJI
(d) JFFJ.

3. (1) If democracy is to survive, the people must develop a sense of consumerism.
(2) Consumerism has helped improve the quality of goods in certain countries.
(3) The protected environment in our country is helping the local manufacturers.
(4) The quality of goods suffers if the manufacturers take undue advantage of this.
(a) IJFJ
(b) JFJI
(c) IJJF
(d) IFJJ.

The answers are: 1. (d); 2. (d); 3. (b).

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