1. PRINCIPLE: Where a person lawfully does anything for another person, or delivers anything to him, not intending to do so or to provide gratuitously, and such other person takes the benefit of that; the latter is bound to compensate the former for something done or thing provided, or to restore, the thing so delivered.
FACTS: Trader ‘A’ delivers certain eatables at B’s house by mistake. ‘B’ consumed the eatables without asking anything. Which of the following derivations is correct?
(a) ‘B’ is bound to pay ‘A’ for the eatables.
(b) ‘B’ is not bound to pay ‘A’ for the eatables.
(c) ‘B’ can be made liable to pay for the eatables, only if ‘A’ establishes an express contract between ‘A’ and ‘B’.
(d) It is the discretion of ‘B’ to make payment to ‘A’.
2. PRINCIPLE: Law never enforces an impossible promise.
FACTS: ‘A’ made a promise to ‘B’ to discover treasure by magic.
(a) Law will not enforce the promise.
(b) Law will enforce the promise only at the option of ‘B’.
(c) Law will enforce the promise.
(d) Law will enforce the promise only at the option of ‘A’.
3. PRINCIPLE: Intentional application of force to another person is actionable in law.
FACTS: ‘P’ and ‘D’ are unknown to each other. When ‘P’ is about to sit on a chair, ‘D’ intentionally pulls it away as a result of which ‘P’ falls on to the floor and is injured.
(a) ‘D’ is not liable as such jokes are common in the society.
(b) ‘D’ is not liable as ‘P’ is not seriously injured.
(c) ‘D’ is liable as he intentionally caused injury to ‘P’.
(d) ‘D’ is not liable as the injury is not directly caused.
4. PRINCIPLE: Mere silence as to facts likely to affect the decision of a person to enter into a contract is not fraud.
FACTS: ‘A’ sells to ‘B’ (A’s daughter who is minor) a horse which ‘A’ knows to be unsound. ‘A’ says nothing to ‘B’ about the unsoundness of the horse.
(a) ‘B’ can take plea of fraud because she is minor.
(b) ‘A’ has committed fraud.
(c) There cannot be a contract between a father and daughter.
(d) ‘A’ has not committed fraud.
5. PRINCIPLE: A person is said to have committed assault when an apprehension is caused in the mind of a person that he is about to use physical force against his body.
FACTS: ‘A’ abuses ‘B’ while he was sitting in a moving train, by aggressively shaking his fists when ‘B’ was standing on the railway platform at a distance.
(a) ‘A’ has caused fear of assault in the mind of ‘B’.
(b) ‘A’ has committed assault against ‘B’.
(c) ‘A’ has not committed assault against ‘B’.
(d) ‘A’ has caused apprehension of assault in the mind of ‘B’.
6. PRINCIPLE: Consent is a good defence in a civil action for tort but the act should be the same for which consent was given.
FACT: ‘B’ was formally invited by ‘A’ to his house. ‘B’ after sitting for some time in drawing room, moved to the bedroom of the house. ‘A’ sued ‘B’ for trespass.
(a) ‘B’ has offended ‘A’ by moving to bed-room.
(b) ‘B’ has interfered with privacy of ‘A’
(c) ‘B’ has committed trespass as there was no consent of ‘A’ for entry in the bedroom.
(d) ‘B’ has committed no trespass as he entered the house with ‘A’s consent.
7. PRINCIPLE: Copyright law protects only work. ‘Work’ means cinematographic film but does not include performance by an actor in a cinematographic film.
FACTS: Alia Bhatt acted in a movie.
(a) The acting of Alia Bhatt can be protected as film producer’s work.
(b) The acting of Alia Bhatt can be protected under copyright law as professional work.
(c) The acting of Alia Bhatt cannot be protected under copyright law.
(d) The acting of Alia Bhatt can be protected under copyright law only as an artistic work.
Answers: 1 (a), 2 (a), 3 (c), 4 (d), 5 (c), 6 (c), 7 (c).